Today will be our first review quiz for the personality disorders theme. Take a few minutes and check your learning.
1) Which of the following personality disorder clusters have the strongest familial association with psychotic disorders?
a) Cluster A
b) Cluster B
c) Cluster C
d) None of the above
2) A 37-year-old technician works in the lab most of the day and has no friends, according to his coworkers. He has found it difficult to keep his job because of failure to collaborate with others. He expresses no desire to make friends and is content with his isolated life. Which of the following disorders most closely describes his behaviors?
a) Antisocial personality disorder
b) Schizotypal personality disorder
c) Schizoid personality disorder
d) Avoidant personality disorder
3) Which of the following is a diagnostic criteria for both antisocial personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder?
a) Takes advantage of others for self-gain
b) Failure to conform to social norms by committing unlawful acts
c) Preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited money or success
d) Envious of others or believes others are envious of him/her
From day #128
Disorders: schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid
Group similarities: eccentric, peculiar, or withdrawn
Mnemonic: "cluster Abnormal" (the weird)
Familial association: psychotic disorders. More common in biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Strongest correlation with schizotypal personality and less correlation with paranoid or schizoid personality.
Disorders: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic
Group similarities: emotional, dramatic, or inconsistent
Mnemonic: "cluster Bloated" (the wild)
Familial association: mood disorders. More common in biological relatives of patients with depression (particularly borderline personality) and substance use disorders (particularly antisocial personality). Additionally, a strong association is found between histrionic personality and somatic symptom disorders.
Disorders: avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive
Group similarities: anxious or fearful
Mnemonic: "cluster Concerned" (the worried)
Familial association: anxiety disorders. More common in biological relatives of patients with anxiety disorders. Patients with avoidant personality often have high anxiety levels themselves. Obsessive-compulsive traits are associated with anxiety and depressive disorders.
From day #130
SCHIZOID personality disorder
Individuals with schizoid personality disorder have a lifelong pattern of social withdrawal and are often perceived as eccentric and reclusive.
The adjective "schizoid" was originally coined to describe the prodromal seclusiveness and isolation observed in schizophrenia, however the schizoid personality type was made official in DSM-3 in 1980.
They tend to be uncomfortable with human interaction and often display a bland and constricted emotional affect. They have no desire for close relationships and prefer to be alone.
Common traits/symptoms may include being -> quiet, reclusive, unsociable, isolated, eccentric, aloof, blunted, disengaged, and distant.
Incorrect answers: schizotypal PD have more eccentric behaviors and magical thinking. The social isolation of schizoid PD can be distinguished from that of avoidant PD, which is attributable to fear of being embarrassed and excessive anticipation of rejection. Unlike with avoidant PD, patients with schizoid PD prefer to be alone. Individuals with obsessive-compulsive PD may also show an apparent social detachment, however this stems from devotion to work and discomfort with emotions rather than a lack of desire and capacity for intimacy. Antisocial PD individuals have a long-standing pattern of rule-breaking, exploiting others without remorse, and disregarding the rights and safety of others.
Takes advantage of others for self-gain
The diagnosis of ASPD requires a pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others since age 15. Patients must be ≥ 18 years old for this diagnosis with a history of behavior consistent with conduct disorder during childhood/adolescence.
≥ 3 of the following must also be present: Mnemonic "CORRUPT"
Crime - Failure to conform to social norms by committing unlawful acts
Obligations - Irresponsibility/failure to sustain work or honor financial obligations
Reckless - Recklessness and disregard for safety of self or others
Remorseless - Lack of remorse for actions
Underhanded - Deceitfulness/repeated lying/manipulating others for personal gain
Planning - Impulsivity/failure to plan ahead
Temper - Irritability and aggressiveness / repeated fights or assaults
The diagnosis of NPD requires a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts.
≥5 of the following must also be present: Mnemonic "GRANDIOSE"
Grandiose - Exaggerated sense of self-importance
Requires excessive admiration
Arrogant - or haughty
Needs to be special - Believes that he or she is “special” or unique and can associate only with other high-status individuals
Dreams - Preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited money, success, brilliance, etc.
Interpersonal explotations - Takes advantage of others for self-gain
Others - Lacks empathy for others
Sense of entitelement
Envious - Envious of others or believes others are envious of him/her
Nice work. If you want to see all of the weekly quizzes you can see them here. Next up we will discuss borderline personality disorder.
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